By Jeff J. Brown
Pictured above: this is the explosion sequence in Beirut last week. The 2015 atomic-bombesque Tianjin Port explosion and this week’s in Beirut are remarkably similar.
Do your friends, family and colleagues a favor to make sure they are Sino-smart:
Books: http://chinarising.puntopress.com/2017/05/19/the-china-trilogy/ and
About me: https://chinarising.puntopress.com/about-the-author/
Sixteen years on the streets, living and working with the people of China, Jeff
Downloadable SoundCloud podcast (also at the bottom of this page), YouTube video, as well as being syndicated on iTunes, Stitcher Radio, RUvid and Ivoox (links below),
Note before starting: to date, this exposé/podcast is the most comprehensive collection of information I’ve seen on the Beirut bombing. I would like to thank all the courageous citizens and journalists whom I referenced. Share it widely, as it is full of hyperlinks, photos and videos.
As well, this detailed report took me many days to produce, researching and contacting people around the world. Please support my work via Patreon, FundRazr or PayPal, above. Thank you.
I reported on the massive Tianjin Port explosion in 2015. It is almost a carbon copy of this week’s Beirut Port explosion,
Tianjin Port explosion was like a small nuclear bomb going off, 44 Days Radio Sinoland 15.8.19
Be sure to watch the one-minute video at the end of the article, which was caught by some expats living in a high rise nearby. I also included a link to a Veterans Today article that breaks down the film footage.
Baba Beijing covered up the likely truth. This was to avoid having to respond with a military attack on US assets, which the citizens would demand as a just response to this act of war. Otherwise, the leadership would lose their Heavenly Mandate to govern.
As you can see in the montage below, the scenes from Tianjin and Beirut are eerily similar,
Bomb craters, Tianjin left, Beirut right.
- Both were/are said to house dangerous chemicals.
- Both explosions had massive plasma fireballs, indicative of an atomic bomb.
- Both had towering mushroom clouds, 500+ meters into the sky as seen here,
Sorry, old chemicals just don’t cause what happened in Tianjin, left, and Beirut, right.
We cannot know about Tianjin, because it happened at night, but the Beirut Port mushroom cloud had a deep red, ochre color, highly indicative of a missile attack.
- Both were so powerful that they registered 4.5 earthquakes on the Richter scale (my article above and https://lebanon.liveuamap.com/en/2020/4-august-jordan-earthquake-observatory-beirut-explosion-equals).
- Both interestingly had primary and secondary explosions, as if the main one needed to be primed.
- Both ending up looking just like ground zero at Hiroshima in 1945 (check out the maps in my article above).
- Both had/have meters-deep, water-filled bomb craters emblematic of a high speed, penetrating missile as seen in the montage above.
- Both were casus belli and buried in the media to prevent the pretext for a hot war with the USA/Israel. You have to love Trump. He said in a press conference and tweeted twice that his generals told him it was an attack (https://news.yahoo.com/amphtml/trump-calls-massive-explosion-beirut-013519883.htm).
- Finally, both had a very specific target: China.
As Taxi at Plato’s Guns explains, China was on the verge of signing a long-term agreement with Lebanon to refurbish and expand Beirut Port, as part of the prior’s Belt and Road Initiative/BRI (https://platosguns.com/2020/08/06/the-us-israel-and-beirutshima/) and he gets credit for coming up with the very accurate moniker, Beirutshima.
Back in 2015, China’s had just grabbed the World’s Top 500 #1 Supercomputer spot from USA’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and if there is one thing you don’t do, that’s show up imperial Globocop, especially in technology (https://defence.pk/pdf/threads/world-top-supercomputers-top500-list-june-2015.398555/). Baba Beijing’s national supercomputer center was next to Tianjin Port and was taken out of commission for a short period of time, due to the bomb attack.
I say bomb attack, because I agree with Taxi. When the evidence is slapping you in the face and kicking you in the groin, stop saying “alleged”, “possible”, “purported” and “suspected”. As I wrote, the chances are about 98% that the United States infected China with Covid (https://chinarising.puntopress.com/2020/04/02/godfree-roberts-shares-his-sars-cov-2-timeline-there-is-a-99-chance-it-should-be-called-the-yankee-coronavirus-china-rising-radio-sinoland-200402/ and https://chinarising.puntopress.com/2020/03/07/its-all-here-the-china-rising-radio-sinoland-covid-19-chemical-and-bioweapon-file-film-and-tape-library/).
Tianjin is more difficult, because Baba Beijing shut down any news, media leaks and evidence, for the aforementioned, casus belli reasons.
However, Beirut is an open and shut case. As I explained in the above Covid timeline, many thousands of persons, organizations, governments and companies have been found guilty in civil courts, based on a preponderance of evidence, composed of three facets: motive, means and modus operandi. In the case of Israel and the United States, they would have a hard time disputing all the evidence discussed below, on top of what is listed above.
Thierry Meyssan at Voltaire Net showed that Israel very publicly promised to bomb Beirut. On 27 September 2018, Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu held up a satellite photo at the UN, of a purported arms cache near Beirut Port, with arrows pointing to where the Israeli missile would hit (https://www.voltairenet.org/article210676.html and (https://www.voltairenet.org/article210679.html),
This week, I’d say Israel kept its promise.
Veterans Today has also done cutting edge journalism, which is being totally buried by Eurangloland’s Big Lie Propaganda Machine (BLPM). This article show photos and tells all: Beirut Port was most assuredly bombed and the obvious culprits are Uncle Sam and the Zionist state (https://www.veteranstoday.com/2020/08/07/breathtaking-case-closed-infrared-video-reveals-details-of-israeli-nuclear-missile/).
Here are two of VT’s photos,
Two photos taken from Veterans Today, that have been censored by the BLPM. You have to like that it is from Tik Tok, reference Trump’s ban!
Hal Turner Radio Show shows that nuclear radiation spiked 10x normal levels in the Beirut area, immediately after the attack (https://halturnerradioshow.com/images/2020/08/05/BeirutRegion-Radiation-24Hours.png),
People are also coming forward, who witnessed planes flying overhead during the attack. Here is Lebanese actress Carmen Lebbos testifying she saw two airplanes via Trump’s bête noire, Tik Tok again!,
In the one below, there are two eyewitnesses who saw airplanes during the attack, with the third talking about the ammonium nitrate (AN) stored there. Veterans Today articles below dispel any chance that there was AN being stored at Beirut Port, since if there were any, Hezbollah would have long ago taken it to safe storage in their mountain munition caches, in areas it controls, not to mention AN needs to be mixed with fuel oil to be explosive, creating ANFO.
If you can’t get YouTube, I uploaded it for you,
Here is another phone video and they comment about the plane you can hear, before getting knocked out by the blast,
Others were caught on film pointing to the sky, seeing and hearing airplanes during the attack. This Asia Times article gives several eye- and ear-witness testimonies and shows photos,
In the above article, there is a video from a man working at Beirut Port, testifying he saw/heard planes drop bombs (https://www.facebook.com/540764796047069/videos/2763183187234038 and https://www.facebook.com/540764796047069/posts/3006496262807231/). He said,
“We’re in the port of Beirut, and we’re hit,” says the petrified man, filming as black smoke billows amid the forest of cranes and containers around him. A transport vehicle buzzes past.
“One minute ago, there was an airplane that did two strikes … that, or one plane made a strike, and then another came and made another strike,” he continues, aiming the camera to show smoke rising into the sky over French CMA-CGM containers, some of them lit with amber flames.
“We’ve really been hit,” he says. “I don’t know what’s happening.” He quivers before the video cuts (off). The man is feared to be among the more than 170 people killed, a toll expected to rise as rescue teams continue to find the corpses of the missing.
May he rest in peace.
Next, below is a person’s phone video clip of the explosion. The person explaining it shows how he/someone accidently filmed what sure looks like an F-16 flying by, right as the explosion hit. He’s speaking Italian and walks you through it, but stop the video at 16-17 and 40-41 seconds to see it. The plane banks in and then flattens out. Who flies the Lockheed Martin F-16 Fighting Falcon? Israel has over 300 of them and uses them constantly to terrorize its neighbors with bombing attacks.
While mainstream media compradors can censor VT’s photos, the following clip is completely random, as is the now-dead port worker’s live account, thereby supporting all of VT’s solid evidence and the numerous other testimonies,
Beirut Port was such an obvious thermobaric bomb, one that sends out a powerful blast of air. This is why all the phone clips seen show people being rocked and thrown violently by the wave of air traveling as fast as the speed of sound, 1,235 kilometers per hour. This is distinctive from the Tianjin blast, which had no thermobaric air blast.
To prove the point, here is footage of a much smaller one being tested in Syria, saying it was Israel’s,
The article below associated with the above clip says it was Russian, but I ask you, why would Russia need to test a thermobaric bomb in Syria, when it has nine million square kilometers of mostly wilderness? Who has no place to do weapon testing? Israel, so we can correctly assume it was theirs,
Like I wrote about in The China Trilogy (see below), six Mossad agents dressed up as Arabs were caught waiting around well in advance, then filming and dancing wildly in celebration during the 9/11 bomb attacks on the WTC twin towers. Showing the police they were Israeli agents, they were of course never questioned and allowed to leave the USA. It’s called getting away with mass murder.
Now, we have another Israeli government official, Moshe Feiglin, a former member of Israel’s Knesset gloating about the destruction of Beirut Port as a “gift from God”. He said the explosion was no accident, for which Israel “should be proud”. I’m sure every Zionist feels the same joy for all the death and destruction (https://www.newsweek.com/gift-god-former-israeli-parliament-member-celebrates-beirut-explosion-1523395).
Veterans Today is getting blocked a lot for me in France, so below I’ll add three more critical article links with their texts, in case you have the same problem. In fact, I had to have a friend send me these texts via email, but do support VT’s website by going there first. They do great investigative journalism. I will include the first one in my video/audio podcast, which I lightly edited here to make it better understood.
I. Israel Planned the Nuke Attack on Beirut Years in Advance, Exactly How they Did it
By Gordon Duff, Senior Editor -August 9, 2020
Veterans Today received this from an intelligence source who knows exactly how the Beirut nuclear attack was done. What he also knows is that Israel has planned this attack in advance, years in advance and anyone who says Israel doesn’t plan that far ahead can’t spell “Mossad.” The shocking truth about the nuclear attack on Beirut.
How do you know that there was in fact that barge load quantity of ammonium nitrate in the port, or a single bag of it? There was none, Just the nuclear bomb that is all. The rest is a fake, well-orchestrated ploy.
Has anyone bothered to find that supposed factory in Georgia (initially it was reported Moldova, but when SSNPS found no source for it, they found one in Georgia)? Did anyone asked the Georgian factory if they really did sell that quantity? Did the Lebanese idiots test one bag of it to determine what is the real content and consistency, or did they just rely on shipping cargo manifesto papers?
When you import and export, there are letter of credit and other counter instruments (SGS inspection docs which did not exist for this shipment/impossible) to provide assurance for the shipper that he will get paid, and for the buyers to receive goods, which will show every detail of the transaction and the financial middleman handling the total invoice FOB.
Did anyone look at these docs to see who was the real buyer and how he paid for it in fact? This supposed buyer already changed three times in four days and no one thought of it as just an Israeli front company that is in fact fictitious.
There is no problem of its non-existence because it was not the intended recipient of the ammonium nitrate shipment in the first place, it was through using a route diversion tactic intended for Beirut delivery.
I wanna cut this short. It is all fake, and now, today, they are repeating it in port of Aden, smart port authorities immediately denied the media reports.
Here is how either the Mossad or CIA orchestrated the scam.
- They shipped something like dirt or rocks in bags that are falsely labeled ammonium nitrate.
- They used a Russian/Israeli operative (so called Russian Businessman in Cyprus) to buy a “ready to salvage” ship paying nickels and dimes.
- They loaded the bogus content on and made false shipping papers with a fake African buyer that no one even checked if it exist or did the purchase in fact, or why he abandoned the two plus million dollars of goods he paid for it. etc., etc.
- Afterward, they changed rout of ship from Istanbul to Greece, to Beirut.
- They brought a bunch of road paving heavy wheels and cracked the deck of the ship and then paid off a bunch of Lebanese agents/officials at the port and unloaded the falsely labeled sandbags on shore.
- Then they sunk the ship and waited for two days before the sham court decision came out to strengthen their alibi and put blame on Hezbollah.
- They surely did not expect the court decision to take that long, but they made sure the Israeli/American agents at the port were compliant with keeping that dirt stored for years at great cost to the port.
- It was all a cover for the nuke drop, that is all.
- If you are engaged in import/export business, which I did for two decades from China, India, South America and the Middle East, you will know how silly the Lebanese are. Ports charge storage by the square foot at a hefty price, especially in covered hangar.
- You’re telling me the entire Hangar #12 was for six years (that too has changed three times) granted free to store the dirt bags? Never liquidated during customs auction at year’s end? What a joke. Someone got paid to cover up the shipment until it was needed for the right time, a day or two before the court pooped its worthless and hoaxed decision.
- If this was in fact ammonium nitrate of high consistency, Hezbollah or dozens of militias and smuggling gangs would have raided it during the first couple of months in storage. I have 17 cousins who would have done that. They know every cranny of every port in Lebanon and what’s in it, what will be arriving the following week, passing through Daboussieh to Syria, and get premium price for it.
- Israel agents are continually at the port, in fact they run the port, everyone knows that. Are you to believe that they don’t check and audit shipping manifests and track it all the way from source port for almost every Middle East country? … Come’on. One day I will have time to publish my horror experiences with the Israelis on this shipment tracking issue.
- Fake Georgian source, fake buyer, fake salvage ship, fake content for a cover story that was delayed to put to use because of a court decision. The only real deal is one heck of nuke and I would not rule out US action here along with the Israelis.
II. Jerusalem Post: Israel blew up Beirut to hell
VT was right all along: Israel decimated Beirut and reduced the area into different atomic particles.
By Jonas E. Alexis -August 9, 2020
First of all, it must be pointed out that Moshe Feiglin, a former member of Israel’s Knesset, called the recent explosion in Beirut “a gift from God.” Feiglin wrote explicitly:
“Today is Tu B’Av, a day of joy, and a true and huge thank you to God and all the geniuses and heroes really (!) who organized for us this wonderful celebration in honor of the day of love. Marking Tu B’Av holiday, we’ve got a fantastic fireworks show from Beirut’s port.”
Feiglin even went further by saying that the explosion was not an accident, and that Israel “should be proud” of what happened. Obviously, that should have gotten everyone’s attention.
But the Jerusalem Post has recently given us something new. It indicated that VT was right all along: Israel decimated Beirut and reduced the area into different atomic particles. In an article entitled, “Nasrallah threatens to blow up Israel with same chemicals as Beirut blast,” we are told:
“Hezbollah leader Hassan Nasrallah threatened in the past to destroy Israel by causing a massive explosion in the port of Haifa using ammonia tanks that he said would be like a ‘nuclear’ explosion. In addition Hezbollah allegedly sought to acquire ammonium nitrate via Syria since 2009 and tried to infiltrate the agriculture ministry in Lebanon to do so, according to leaked diplomatic cables.”
Throughout the article, it is implied that Beirut deserved to be blown to hell because the area itself was a terrorist organ. The article, of course, doesn’t mention Israel by name as the main culprit behind the blast, but it does give enough force to assert that Israel knew everything about what was going on in Beirut. Listen to this:
“The footage of the speeches which has come to light after the explosion of ammonium nitrate that was stored improperly for years in the port of Beirut suggests that Hezbollah studied the use of ammonia as an accelerant that would multiply exponentially the power of its missiles. It may be that Hezbollah studied the warehouse in Beirut and the ships that deliver this chemical. Ammonium nitrate is commonly used i`n fertilizer but can be used in explosives as well.”
In other words, if people happen to die in the blast, then Israel or any other agent supporting Israel would be acting in self-defense, and that Hezbollah is largely responsible for the blast. The blast so far is responsible for the deaths of 158 people, “with more than 6,000 injured.” It will also cost at least 15 billion dollars.
Of course, McKenzie Sadeghi of USA Today has already come out with baseball bats and pitchforks and declared that Israel was not behind the attack because, well, Benjamin Netanyahu said so. But Sadeghi said something again that should make you think a bit:
“BREAKING: PM Netanyahu of Israel has just confirmed the drone strike in Beirut, Lebanon as their own in another Attack against the vicious terrorist organization Hezbollah. The location was a firecracker factory which is said to have been storing and possibly even creating weapons for the terrorist organization in multiple plots against Israel.”
So, let’s just suppose that the last statement is true, that Hezbollah was amassing weapons for attacking Israel in that specific area. Then who would benefit if the location is blown to hell? Hezbollah? The people in Beirut? And given the information that has already been published by the Jerusalem Post itself, Israeli officials cannot simply wash their hands and announce themselves innocent to the entire world. It ain’t gonna work that way.
Finally, when was the last time that Netanyahu tells the world the whole truth and nothing but the truth? You remember the book that he wrote way back in 1995? Netanyahu explicitly wrote in his 1995-book Fighting Terrorism:
“The best estimate at this time place Iran between three and five years away from possessing the prerequisites required for the independent production of nuclear weapons. After this time, the Iranian Islamic republic will have the ability to construct atomic weapons without the importation of materials or technology from abroad.”
Forty years later, Iran still does not have the bomb. In fact, it is generally agreed among U.S. and Israeli intelligence that Iran abandoned its nuclear weapons program. Did Netanyahu start rethinking about his relentless lies and fabrications? Did he apologize to the world for slandering Iran? Did he listen to the head of the Israel Defense Force Lieutenant General Benny Gantz, who said that “the Iranian leadership is composed of very rational people” and is not interested in building nuclear weapons?
No. Netanyahu is still making things up: Iran has nuclear weapons, Iran is planning to attack the West, Iran is building terrorist networks around the world, Iran…You get the drill. Israeli news commentator and former politician Yossi Sarid eventually was fed up with Netanyahu’s perpetual lies and declared that “this Israeli Politician is a Psychopath.” He moved on to say: “Could the various Knesset slates be housing people who should be receiving [psychiatric] treatment?” Why is Netanyahu a psychopath? Well, according to Sarid, some of the signs of a psychopath includes “Repeated lying for the purpose of gratification, confusing reality and imagination.” Sarid again declared: “Do three or more characteristics remind you of anybody?”
In a subsequent article, it was pretty obvious Sarid was talking about Benjamin Netanyahu, who has a long history of lying “for the purpose of gratification.” Mark this down: in the next few years or so, after everything is calm and when virtually everyone seems to forget about the Beirut blast, documents will almost certainly come from the Israeli archives admitting that Israel was indeed responsible for the blast. Remember the USS Liberty? You remember how Israel denied it for years? And you remember how Israeli archival documents and even the Jerusalem Post eventually showed that Israel was indeed responsible for the whole debacle?
Retired U.S. Naval Officer James N. Ennes, author of Assault on the Liberty, and one of the crew members aboard the ship at the time of the attack. I happened to correspond with him for a book that I was writing at the time, and he said very explicitly that Israel knew what they were doing and that the United States should have responded to the attack.
 Emily Czachor, “’Gift From God’: Former Israeli Parliament Member Celebrates Beirut Explosion,” Newsweek, August 6, 2020.
 Seth J. Frantzman, “Nasrallah threatens to blow up Israel with same chemicals as Beirut blast,” Jerusalem Post, August 8, 2020.
 “Death toll of Beirut blast rises to 158, with more than 6,000 injured: Health Ministry,” Daily Star, August 8, 2020.
 McKenzie Sadeghi, “Fact check: No evidence Beirut blast was an Israeli attack,” USA Today, August 7, 2020.
 Benjamin Netanyahu, Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1995), 121.
 “‘US, Israel agree Iran abandoned nuclear bomb,’” Jerusalem Post, March 18, 2012; James Risen and Mark Marzetti, “U.S. Agencies See No Move by Iran to Build a Bomb,” NY Times, February 24, 2012.
 Julian Borger, “Israel army chief contradicts Netanyahu on Iran,” Guardian, April 25, 2012; “Israeli military chief: Iran will not decide to make nuclear weapons,” Guardian, April 25, 2012.
 Yossi Sarid, “This Israeli Politician Is Basically a Psychopath. Guess Who,” Haaretz, January 23, 2015.
 Yossi Sarid, “Beware: Republican Jews on the Warpath,” Haaretz, February 8, 2015.
 See for example Akiva Eldar, “Netanyahu’s Speech of Lies,” Haaretz, September 26, 2011; Scott Peterson, Imminent Iran Nuclear Threat? A Time of Warning Since 1979,” Christian Science Monitor, November 8, 2011; John J. Mearsheimer, Why Leaders Lie: The Truth About Lying in International Politics (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011).
 See for example Arieh O’Sullivan, “Exclusive: Liberty attack tapes revealed,” Jerusalem Post, June 6, 2004; Miriam Pensack, “Fifty Years Later, NSA Keeps Details of Israel’s USS Liberty Attack Secret,” The Intercept, June 7, 2017.
Jonas E. Alexis has degrees in mathematics and philosophy. He studied education at the graduate level. His main interests include U.S. foreign policy, history of Israel/Palestine conflict, and the history of ideas. He is the author of the new book Zionism vs. the West: How Talmudic Ideology is Undermining Western Culture. He is currently working on a book tentatively titled, Kevin MacDonald’s Abject Failure: A Philosophical and Moral Critique of Evolutionary Psychology, Sociobiology, and White Identity. He teaches mathematics in South Korea.
III. Who Nuked Beirut?
By Kevin Barrett -August 9, 2020, Veterans Today Editor
Scroll down for a technical breakdown of why Beirut’s fertilizer problem is unsupportable unless there was a fueling station there as well:
“Who nuked Beirut?” That’s an obvious question to anyone who knows their mushroom clouds and can see through the fertilizer/fireworks cover stories. And it’s also the theme of this week’s False Flag Weekly News with J. Michael Springman, and of Friday night’s interview with VT Senior Editor Gordon Duff.
Those who wish to explore the topic in more detail should read Gordon’s articles, as well as Taxi’s “The US, Israel, and Beirutshima,” Pepe Escobar’s “Who Profits from the Beirut Blast?” Richard Silverstein’s articles relying on Israeli sources, and listen to my discussion with Professor Tony Hall.
Terrorists who mass murder civilians—like the American terrorists behind Hiroshima and Nagasaki (as well as Dresden and Tokyo) and the presumed Israeli terrorists behind the Beirut disaster—typically offer an “ends justify the means” defense. They often use mathematics to support their assertions that mass murder is OK: Nuking cities full of civilians is fine because we “only” killed half a million people to end the war, while millions would have died in an invasion. As for the Israelis, their mathematical genius shows them that Jewish life has a value approximating to infinity, while non-Jewish life has a value approximating to zero. So mass murdering the goyim, especially Arabs and Muslims (whose lives they suspect of actually having a negative value) adds up to “fully kosher.”
This week’s FFWN cited an article on Hiroshima pointing out that even if murder saves more lives than it costs—a dubious assertion in cases like Hiroshima and Beirut—it is still murder. As philosopher Gertrude Anscombe wrote:
“Come now: if you had to choose between boiling one baby and letting some frightful disaster befall a thousand people—or a million people, if a thousand is not enough—what would you do? For men to choose to kill the innocent as a means to their ends is always murder.”
I will leave it to my readers to figure out how this applies (or doesn’t) to the medical maxim “first do no harm,” and to the philosophical problem posed by vaccinations that can ruin and/or end some lives in hopes of enhancing and extending a larger number of others.
Ammonium Nitrate and Fuel Oil
In December of 1956 Melvin Cook’s invented a new blasting agent using an unusual mixture of ammonium nitrate, aluminum powder, and water. The safety and efficiency of this new explosive were apparent, and the use of water was revolutionary. Tests that followed resulted in the development of a new field of explosives: slurry explosives. This invention converted the commercial explosives industry from “dangerous dynamite” to “safe slurry” and dry blasting agents. In 1972 Cook developed the BLU-82, the largest and most powerful chemical bomb, using aluminized slurry.
ANFO (or AN/FO, for ammonium nitrate / fuel oil) is a widely used explosive mixture. The oil used is most often No. 2 fuel oil, or diesel fuel, but sometimes kerosene, coal dust, or even molasses.
ANFO under most conditions is considered a high explosive; it decomposes through detonation rather than deflagration and with a high velocity. It is a tertiary explosive consisting of distinct fuel and oxidizer phases and requires confinement for efficient detonation and brisance. Its sensitivity is relatively low; it generally requires a booster (e.g., one or two sticks of dynamite, as historically used, or, in more recent times, Tovex) to ensure reliable detonation. The explosive efficiency associated with ANFO is approximately 80% of TNT, also stated as TNT equivalency. The most efficient mixed AN explosives using fuels other than fuel oil can exceed TNT equivalency.
The basic chemistry of ANFO detonation is the reaction of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) with a long chain hydrocarbon (CnH2n+2) to form nitrogen, carbon dioxide and water. In an ideal stechiometrically balanced reaction, ANFO is composed of approximately 94.3% AN and 5.7% FO by weight.
Ammonium nitrate-fuel oil has largely replaced dynamites and gelatins in bench blasting. Denser slurry blasting agents are supplanting dynamite and gelatin and dry blasting agents. The most widely used dry blasting agent is a mixture of ammonium nitrate prills (porous grains) and fuel oil. The fuel oil is not precisely CH2, but this is sufficiently accurate to characterize the reaction.
Uniform mixing of oil and ammonium nitrate is essential to development of full explosive force. Some blasting agents are premixed and packaged by the manufacturer. Where not premixed, several methods of mixing in the field can be employed to achieve uniformity.
As in other combustion reactions, a deficiency of oxygen favors the formation of carbon monoxide and unburned organic compounds and produces little, if any, nitrogen oxides.
An excess of oxygen causes more nitrogen oxides and less carbon monoxide and other unburned organics. For ammonium nitrate and fuel oil (ANFO) mixtures, a fuel oil content of more than 5.5 percent creates a deficiency of oxygen. The simple removal of a tree stump might be done with a 2-step train made up of an electric blasting cap and a stick of dynamite. The detonation wave from the blasting cap would cause detonation of the dynamite.
To make a large hole in the earth, an inexpensive explosive such as ANFO might be used. In this case, the detonation wave from the blasting cap is not powerful enough to cause detonation, so a booster must be used in a 3- or 4-step train. The yield from the blasting caps and safety fuses used in these trains are usually small compared to those from the main charge, because the yields are roughly proportional to the weight of explosive used, and the main charge makes up most of the total weight.
Advantages of insensitive dry blasting agents are their safety, ease of loading, and low price. Ammonium nitrate is water soluble so that in wet holes, some blasters pump the water from the hole, insert a plastic sleeve, and load the blasting agent into the sleeve.
Special precautions should be taken to avoid a possible building up of static electrical charge, particularly when loading pneumatically. When properly oxygen- balanced, the fume qualities of dry blasting agents permit their use underground. Canned blasting agents, once widely used, have unlimited water resistance, but lack advantages of loading ease and direct coupling to the borehole.
Dr. Kevin Barrett, a Ph.D. Arabist-Islamologist, is one of America’s best-known critics of the War on Terror.
He is host of TRUTH JIHAD RADIO; a hard driving weekly radio show funded by listener donations at Patreon.com and FALSE FLAG WEEKLY NEWS (FFWN); a audio-video show produced by Tony Hall, Allan Reese, and Kevin himself. FFWN is funded through FundRazr.
He also has appeared many times on Fox, CNN, PBS and other broadcast outlets, and has inspired feature stories and op-eds in the New York Times, the Christian Science Monitor, the Chicago Tribune, and other leading publications.
Dr. Barrett has taught at colleges and universities in San Francisco, Paris, and Wisconsin; where he ran for Congress in 2008. He currently works as a nonprofit organizer, author, and talk radio host.
Become a regular China Rising Radio Sinoland patron and get FREE BOOKS!
It all goes towards the same win-win goals: unique research, reporting and truth telling in support of the global 99%, for a more just and mutually beneficial 21st century.
In Solidarity, Jeff
Why and How China works: With a Mirror to Our Own History
Read it in your language • Lealo en su idioma • Lisez-le dans votre langue • Lies es in deniner Sprache • Прочитайте это на вашем языке • 用你的语言阅读
Wechat group: search the phone number +8613823544196 or my ID, Jeff_Brown-44_Days, friend request and ask Jeff to join the China Rising Radio Sinoland Wechat group. He will add you as a member, so you can join in the ongoing discussion.